Long‑term complications

Long‑term complications include:1

  • Chronic arterial hypertension
  • Renal impairment
  • Chronic liver damage
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma

Some patients experience chronic neuropathic pain, which may account for an increased risk for depression and suicide.1


Anderson KE, Bloomer JR, Bonkovsky HL, et al. Recommendations for the Diagnosis and Treatment of the Acute Porphyrias. Ann Intern Med 2005;142:439‑450.